A graduate from Parkersburg High School in 1941, Goldenberg obtained his undergraduate and law degree from Washington & Lee University. He was United States Navy veteran having served on a minesweeper in combat in the Pacific Theatre, including the invasion of Okinawa, obtaining the rank of Lieutenant (J.G.). After obtaining his law degree, he practiced law in Parkersburg for sixty-nine years, and at the time of his death was the oldest practicing lawyer in the State of WV. During his career he was President of the WV Trial Lawyers Association, Chairman of the Board of Review of Employment Security, former Commissioner for the WV Human Rights Commission, named as one of the Best Lawyers in America in Employment Law, and Vice-President of The National Association of Administrative Law Judges. He also served Wood County as a member of The House of Delegates in the WV Legislature. Locally he was very active in community affairs including The Mid-Ohio Valley United Fund, Lions Club, Camden Clark Memorial Hospital Foundation Board of Directors, Board member of Parkersburg Jaycees, Parkersburg YMCA, Elks Lodge, and President of Parkersburg High School Alumni Association. He was a 32nd Degree Mason and member of Parkersburg Masonic Lodge #3. Growing up he was a Boy Scout in local Troop 3 and Sea Scouts and stayed involved with them through a project for future troop leaders. In his nineties he undertook to work with the Governor's Office to improve the response time for drug testing.
Mr. Goldenberg was co-counsel for twenty-one of the families who were the survivors of men who lost their lives in the collapse of the cooling tower at the Willow Island Power Plant. The Robert T. Goldenberg Trust Fund was established with the Parkersburg Area Community Foundation for the purpose of promoting safety in the construction industry.